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  • 实验室的设计装修符合哪些人体工程学?
    来源: 浏览: 发布日期:2019-05-27
      实验室是高校教学科研的重要实践场所。实验家具设计在实验室内部环境设计中占有非常重要的作用。人体工程学以人-机-环境作为研究对象,通过揭示人-机-环境之间相互关系的规律,实现人机系统性能优化,从而改善生活和工作环境。本文从人体工学的角度出发,论述了实验室家具的设计,即在实验室家具设计中充分运用人体工学原理,尽量满足使用者人体工学的需求,令做实验者操作实验时感觉方便舒适、轻轻愉悦。
      Laboratory is an important place of practice for teaching and scientific research in Colleges and universities. The design of experimental furniture plays a very important role in the design of indoor environment. Ergonomics takes man-machine-environment as its research object. By revealing the law of the relationship between man-machine-environment, it can optimize the performance of man-machine system and improve the living and working environment. From the angle of ergonomics, this paper discusses the design of laboratory furniture, that is, to make full use of ergonomics principles in the design of laboratory furniture, to meet the ergonomics needs of users as far as possible, and to make the experimenter feel convenient, comfortable and lightly pleasant when operating the experiment.
      1 人体工程学
      1 Ergonomics
      人体工程学源于欧美,又称“人机工程学”。国际人体工程学学会对人体工程学的定义是:“研究人在工作环境中的剖解学、生理学、心理学等方面的因素,研究系统中各组成部分的交互作用(效率、健康、安全、舒适等),研究在工作和家庭中、在休假的环境里,如何实现人-机-环境优化的问题的学科。”实验室里,做实验者、仪器设备、实验家具和实验室内部环境等因素组成了实验室人体环境系统。人体工程学运用人体生理、心理计量和测量等方法,研究实验室操作人员的人体结构功能、心理、力学等方面的因素,以适合人们身心活动的需求,进而取得佳的使用效能。
      Ergonomics originated from Europe and America, also known as "ergonomics". The International Society of Human Engineering defines ergonomics as "the study of human anatomy, physiology, psychology and other factors in the working environment, the study of the interaction of various components of the system (efficiency, health, safety, comfort, etc.), and the study of how to achieve the optimization of human-machine-environment in the working and family environment and in the vacation environment". In the laboratory, the human environment system of the laboratory is composed of the experimenter, equipment, furniture and indoor environment. Ergonomics uses the methods of human physiology, psychometrics and measurement to study the factors of human structure, function, psychology and mechanics of laboratory operators, so as to meet the needs of people's physical and mental activities, and to achieve the best use efficiency.
      2 当前实验室家具设计存在的问题
      2 Current problems in laboratory furniture design
    实验室装修
      现在,很多实验室的家具设计不符合人体需求,给实验操作带来很多不便。例如:有的实验台桌面高度不合理,过高造成颈肩不适,过低造成背部前倾。有的实验台桌面宽度不够,手臂操作空间太小,造成肩部和手肘的肌肉群疲劳酸痛。有的实验操作台空间设计不合理,实验器具和实验材料区域划分不明确,仪器设备杂乱放置,容易引发视觉疲劳,造成误操作。有些实验坐椅不符合人体需求,长期久坐做实验容易腰酸背痛。
      At present, the furniture design of many laboratories does not meet the needs of the human body, which brings a lot of inconvenience to the experimental operation. For example: some experimental table table height is unreasonable, too high cause neck and shoulder discomfort, too low cause back forward. In some cases, the width of the desktop is not enough and the manipulation space of the arm is too small, resulting in fatigue and soreness of the muscles of the shoulder and elbow. Some experimental manipulators are unreasonable in space design, unclear division of experimental instruments and materials, and disorderly placement of instruments and equipment, which can easily lead to visual fatigue and misoperation. Some experimental chairs do not meet the needs of the human body, long-term sitting experiments are easy to backache.
      综上所述,实验家具的设计应以人为本,充分应用人体工程学的原理,敬重实验操编辑的生理和心理需求,为他们提供科学方便、舒适宜人的实验家具,改善和优化实验室内部环境,进而提高实验准确率和实验创新率,从而取得更优质的教学科研成果。
      To sum up, the design of experimental furniture should be people-oriented, fully apply the principles of ergonomics, respect the physiological and psychological needs of experimental operators, provide them with scientific, convenient, comfortable and pleasant experimental furniture, improve and optimize the internal environment of the laboratory, and then improve the accuracy and innovation rate of the experiment, so as to achieve better teaching and scientific research results.
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