Operating room decoration design, especially high-level clean laminar flow operating room, has special requirements for interior decoration, so that it can meet the functional requirements and reduce the dust generated or accumulated by materials and structures, which is essential to prevent pollution and reduce the infection rate after operation.
Because the contamination degree of the ground is much higher than that of the wall and ceiling, a large number of dust particles are produced by the movement of medical staff on the floor and various equipment, so the ground decoration should be paid attention to by designers. Ground decoration should be smooth, smooth, wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant (acid, alkali, medicine), easy to clean. Cast-in-situ terrazzo is often used in our country for its smooth, wear-resistant, dustproof, anti-static and easy to clean, but it should not be washed out with peracetic acid diluent, otherwise it will react with alkaline cement and lead to hemp surface. In addition, it is suggested that cement with strength grade 425 or above and stone size d=6-15mm should be used to prevent cracking, pebble dropping and sand blasting. Anti-static terrazzo floor is used in the clean operating room of a people's hospital in Zhejiang Province designed by Koling Company. Ceramic tile, mosaic (ceramic brocade brick) and other materials with obvious joints are also used in some low-level clean operating rooms, but generally not recommended.
Rubber, polyurethane paint and resin sheets can be used for high-grade floor decoration. For example, in many medical and surgical environments in Europe, America and Japan, elastic plastic sheets are used as floor materials. Its most remarkable advantage is that there are fewer seams (usually hot-melt welding is used to connect the coils, the welding rod is made of the same plastic material as the coils), which can avoid the accumulation of dirt and bacteria. In addition, it also has the advantages of pollution resistance, cleanliness, comfortable feet, various patterns, easy installation and replacement, which are incomparable with terrazzo. The clean operating room of Shanghai XX Hospital was designed and constructed by Keling Company. Plastic coil floor was selected.
In the vertical operating room, if the ground or ditch return air is used, the panel of the return air area should be chosen as the block movable partition floor.
Ground leakage should not be installed on the ground. Otherwise, high water-sealed ground leakage should be installed to prevent air permeability from polluting clean indoor air.
Now the new clean laminar flow operating room, the walls are generally constructed with light steel keel partition wall, which is convenient for various pipelines used in the operating room and the concealed fixtures on the wall. Surface decoration requires materials with high hardness, good integrity, few joints and tight cracks. Commonly used are stainless steel plate, aluminium alloy plate (all should be matt) or other composite profiles. Back can be attached to improve impact resistance, heat preservation and insulation performance according to need. The sealant or special filler is used to fill the joint of the panel, and the wall is combined with the feeding, return air outlet and observation window, wall fixed instrument cabinet and medicine cabinet to minimize the concave and convex surfaces and cracks.
Wall generally requires vertical floor, but some experts suggest that the wall can be made into an inclination of 3 degrees, which not only can reduce dust accumulation, but also can make the angle of light reflection conducive to the operation of medical personnel.
In addition, in the construction or reconstruction of low-level clean operating rooms in many small and medium-sized hospitals in our country, we can adopt the method of masonry walls and ceramic tiles to the top of the surface decoration according to local conditions, but we should use right-angle ceramic tiles to avoid the shortcomings of easy ash accumulation at small rounded joints of ceramic tiles; we can also use various high-grade coatings which are not easy to peel off and mildew-proof.
If you want to do kickboards or skirts, the structure should make its surface shrink to the wall surface, at least should be level with the wall.
The bottom of the roof needs to be arranged and installed with high-efficiency filter air outlets, lighting fixtures, smoke extinguishers, etc. All kinds of pipelines need to be concealed in the roof, so the roof part is the key part of the interior decoration of the clean operating room. It is better to use light steel keel and large panel material as ceiling (basically, the board used for wall can be used as ceiling cover panel, as mentioned above). The vibration of the air duct on the ceiling has more influence, so it is more important to control the vibration shedding than to control the surface hardness of the material. The ceiling cover material should be sealed by sealant grouting or pressing strip to form a whole, so as to prevent dust from polluting the airflow of clean operating room through the crevice in the ceiling space.
In addition, there is a method of hard ceiling, that is, decorating the bottom of reinforced concrete floor directly according to cleanliness requirements, which is more suitable for the construction of operating rooms with lower floor height. For example, in the clean operating room of PLA 301 Hospital, the method of hard roof is adopted, and under the reinforced concrete roof, the hard plastic plate is used to cover the floor (when the cast-in-place reinforced concrete floor is used as a template, the floor is penetrated once). Hard roof method is characterized by high strength, easy installation and maintenance, but self-weight, air supply outlet and lamps in the installation of holes, construction is more complex, and not easy to change.
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